The Ninja Outfit (aka Desert Turban) is the upgraded form of the Turban. It provides the maximum protection from sandstorms, and when it is worn, you take very little damage from them (2 damage every 8 seconds). If you are able to heal, this completely counteracts the damage from sandstorms, even if you have no aloe vera. However, it is a later-game item, as you have to traverse the Winter to get penguin feathers, and kill many Vultures and Boars. Because of this, it is not recommended for use in quests.
It is as warm as earmuffs in the Winter and Forest, and is as cool as diamond protection when worn in the Lava biome, but is best used in the Desert, as it completely negates the heat and cold of that biome. This makes it possible to permanently live in the desert. Although it gives some warmth in winter, it does not reduce the damage of blizzards.
The ninja outfit has one of the longest crafting times in the entire game, beaten only by lava gear and the emerald machine. A book is highly recommended, because the crafting time without a book is long enough to drain 90% of your hunger. Ironically, the pilot hat has the same effects as a ninja outfit (plus additional benefits) but has a significantly faster crafting time.